i. Provide a brief history of DNA-testing business and its recent developments. What is the social, legal, and ethical consideration around this new business field?
ii. What are the Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing business? Explore and explain the privacy concerns in detail.
iii. A DNA testing company that tells clients their genetic ancestry is approached by police for help in an investigation. Explain what privacy issues are at stake and under what conditions the company should help the police (in your justified opinion).
i. A brief history of DNA-testing business and its very recent developments are important to humankind and the associated studies evolved around the area of DNS testing. The forensic DNA analysis was introduced in the year 1980s, and since then it developed or evolved into a powerful tool for practicing paternity testing for the children to determine the respective parents and in criminal justice to crack the case on the scenario of crime scenes. The factors make DNA so powerful and useful is because each person’s DNA is unique or different, unless in the case of an identical twin, in that specific case, the DNA is identical to that of the direct twin sibling. This also practiced and uses in plants, also radically changed the way the world breed and utilizes the crops and through all means by which one recognizes and protects the plant biodiversity.
Although the DNA testing started out for being tested with blood first, the DNA can also be tested from hair, saliva, bone, and semen through the recent research and developments in the area of development. In a lot of the older cases, they will use as in pieces of bone, hair, or stored skin tissues. Now, in most tests that are done today are done with saliva, semen, or the blood.
The social, legal, and ethical considerations around this new business field are to identify, monitor, report, and address the issues raised by any genomic research that would affect individuals, families, and society. DNA can be a unique, efficient, and helpful tool to find out information about your past, such as who are your parents, siblings, your family history, or in criminal cases.
ii. The Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications (ELSI) of the Genetic Testing business was founded in 1990 as an integral part of the Human Genome Project. The mission of the ELSI program was to monitor, track, identify, and address the key issues raised by genomic research that would directly or indirectly affect the individuals, families, and society. Many of the risks or the implications associated with the genetic testing involve the emotional, psychological, social, or financial consequences of the final test results. People may feel very angry, anxious, depressed, or guilty about their results.
Each new genetic test or studies that are developed raises some serious issues for medicine, public health, privacy concerns, and social policy regarding the circumstances under which the DNA test should be used, or how the test is to be implemented, and what all uses are made of its results.
The concerns about the implications and privacy are specific and important to deal with at every level. Each new genetic test that is developed or raises serious issues for medicine, the public, and other similar areas. The four important ethical and legal principles are autonomy, confidentiality, privacy, and equity. Autonomy can be mainly defined as the self-determination, self-rule, or self-governance, and then whether they may wish to know the details of the outcome of the testing. There are four major priorities or concerns being addressed by ELSI. The first is the issue of the secret nature, privacy, and fairness in the use and interpretation of genetic information. As a genetic information is being discovered, or the risk of genetic discrimination increases as some new disease genes are identified after the process.
iii. In usual scenarios, the DNA testing company that always tells clients their genetic ancestry is approached by police for help in an investigation. There are privacy issues are at stake and under these conditions, the company should help the police for further investigations. A committee is monitoring and effectively drafted, passed a resolution. It says the confidentiality of genetic information must be protected, and no matter who obtains, stores, or maintains the specific information, including genetic information collected, stored, or maintained by health care institutions, health care professionals, researchers, employers, insurance companies, laboratory personnel, and law enforcement officials.
The NSGC support individual confidentiality regarding the results of the genetic testing. It is the right and responsibility of the individual to keep the privacy, determine who shall have direct access to medical information, particularly results of testing for genetic conditions. But in emergency cases under the law, the police department has the right to collect the forensic details and use these for the progress of the investigation. And the privacy issues relating to the DNA testing companies sell the data to pharmaceutical companies, insurance companies, and other investigation agencies.